THE PENNY CATECHISM

Faith in God

Penny catechism cover

 

1. Who made you?

God made me.

2. Why did God make you?

God made me to know him, love him and serve him in this world, and to be happy with him for ever in the next.

3. To whose image and likeness did God make you?

God made me to his own image and likeness.

4. Is this likeness to God in your body, or in your soul?

This likeness to God is chiefly in my soul.

5. How is your soul like to God?

My soul is like to God because it is a spirit, and is immortal.

6. What do you mean when you say that your soul is immortal?

When I say my soul is immortal, I mean that my soul can never die.

7. Of which must you take more care, of your body or of your soul?

I must take more care of my soul; for Christ has said, 'What does it profit a man if he gains the whole world, and suffers the loss of his own soul?' (Matt. 16:26)

8. What must you do to save your soul?

To save my soul I must worship God by Faith, Hope and Charity; that is, I must believe in him, I must hope in him, and I must love him with my whole heart.

9. What is faith?

Faith is a supernatural gift of God, which enables us to believe without doubting whatever God has revealed.

10. Why must you believe whatever God has revealed?

I must believe whatever God has revealed because God is the very truth, and can neither deceive nor be deceived.

11. How are you to know what God has revealed?

I am to know what God has revealed by the testimony, teaching, and authority of the Catholic Church.

12. Who gave the Catholic Church divine authority to teach?

Jesus Christ gave the Catholic Church divine authority to teach, when he said, 'Go therefore, make disciples of all the nations'. (Matt. 28:19)

 13. What are the chief things which God has revealed?

The chief things which God has revealed are contained in the Apostles' Creed.

14. Say the Apostles' Creed

I believe in God, the Father Almighty, Creator of heaven and earth;
and in Jesus Christ, his only Son, our Lord;
who was conceived by the Holy Spirit, born of the Virgin Mary;
suffered under Pontius Pilate, was crucified, dead, and buried;
he descended into hell; the third day he rose again from the dead;
he ascended into heaven; is seated at the right hand of God the Father Almighty;
from thence he shall come to judge the living and the dead.
I believe in the Holy Spirit;
the Holy Catholic Church;
the Communion of Saints;
the forgiveness of sins;
the resurrection of the body;
and life everlasting.
Amen.

15. How is the Apostles' Creed divided?

The Apostles' Creed is divided into twelve parts or articles.

First Article of the Creed

16. What is the first article of the Creed?

The first article of the Creed is, 'I believe in God, the Father Almighty, Creator of heaven and earth'.

17. What is God?

God is the supreme Spirit, who alone exists of himself, and is infinite in all perfection.

18. Why is God called Almighty?

God is called 'Almighty' because he can do all things; 'For God everything is possible'. (Matt. 19:26)

19. Why is God called Creator of heaven and earth?

God is called 'Creator of heaven and earth' because he made heaven and earth, and all things, out of nothing, by his word.

20. Had God any beginning?

God had no beginning: he always was, he is, and he always will be.

21. Where is God?

God is everywhere.

22. Does God know and see all things?

God knows and sees all things, even our most secret thoughts.

23. Had God any body?

God has no body; he is a spirit.

24. Is there only one God?

There is only one God.

25. Are there three Persons in God?

There are three Persons in God: God the Father, God the Son, and God the Holy Spirit.

26. Are these three Persons three Gods?

These three Persons are not three Gods: the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit are all one and the same God.

27. What is the mystery of the Three Persons in one God called?

The mystery of the three Persons in one God is called the mystery of the Blessed Trinity.

28. What do you mean by a mystery?

By a mystery I mean a truth which is above reason, but revealed by God.

29. Is there any likeness to the Blessed Trinity in your soul?

There is this likeness to the Blessed Trinity in my soul: that as in one God there are three Persons, so in my one soul there are three powers.

30. Which are the three powers of your soul?

The three powers of my soul are my memory, my understanding, and my will.

The Second Article of the Creed

31. What is the second article of the Creed?

The second article of the Creed is, 'and in Jesus Christ, his only Son, our Lord'.

32. Who is Jesus Christ?

Jesus Christ is God the Son, made man for us.

33. Is Jesus Christ truly God?

Jesus Christ is truly God.

34. Why is Jesus Christ truly God?

Jesus Christ is truly God because he has one and the same nature with God the Father.

35. Was Jesus Christ always God?

Jesus Christ was always God, born of the Father from all eternity.

36. Which Person of the Blessed Trinity is Jesus Christ?

Jesus Christ is the Second Person of the Blessed Trinity.

37. Is Jesus Christ truly man?

Jesus Christ is truly man.

38. Why is Jesus Christ truly man?

Jesus Christ is truly man because he has the nature of man, having a body and soul like ours.

39. Was Jesus Christ always man?

Jesus Christ was not always man. He has been man only from the time of his Incarnation.

40. What do you mean by the Incarnation?

I mean by the Incarnation that God the Son took to himself the nature of man: 'the Word was made Flesh'. (John 1:14)

41. How many natures are there in Jesus Christ?

There are two natures in Jesus Christ, the nature of God and the nature of man.

42. Is there only one Person in Jesus Christ?

There is only one Person in Jesus Christ, which is the Person of God the Son.

43. Why was God the Son made man?

God the Son was made man to redeem us from sin and hell, and to teach us the way to heaven.

44. What does the holy name Jesus mean?

The holy name Jesus means Saviour. (Matt. 1:21)

45. What does the name Christ mean?

The name Christ means Anointed.

46. Where is Jesus Christ?

As God, Jesus Christ is everywhere. As God made man, he is in heaven, and in the Blessed Sacrament of the Altar.

The Third Article of the Creed

47. What is the third article of the Creed?

The third article of the Creed is, 'who was conceived by the Holy Spirit, born of the Virgin Mary'.

48. What does the third article mean?

The third article means that God the Son took a Body and Soul like ours, in the womb of the Blessed Virgin Mary, by the power of the Holy Spirit.

49. Had Jesus Christ any father on earth?

Jesus Christ had no father on earth: St Joseph was only his guardian or foster-father.

50. Where was our Saviour born?

Our Saviour was born in a stable at Bethlehem.

51. On what day was our Saviour born?

Our Saviour was born on Christmas Day.

The Fourth Article of the Creed

52. What is the fourth article of the Creed?

The fourth article of the Creed is, 'suffered under Pontius Pilate, was crucified, dead, and buried'.

53. What were the chief sufferings of Christ?

The chief sufferings of Christ were: first, his agony, and his sweat of blood in the Garden; secondly, his being scourged at the pillar, and crowned with thorns; and thirdly his carrying his cross, his crucifixion, and his death between two thieves.

54. What are the chief sufferings of our Lord called?

The chief sufferings of our Lord are called the Passion of Jesus Christ.

55. Why did our Saviour suffer?

Our Saviour suffered to atone for our sins, and to purchase for us eternal life.

56. Why is Jesus Christ called our Redeemer?

Jesus Christ is called our Redeemer because his precious blood is the price by which we were ransomed.

57. On what day did our Saviour die?

Our Saviour died on Good Friday.

58. Where did our Saviour die?

Our Saviour died on Mount Calvary.

59. Why do we make the sign of the cross?

We make the sign of the cross - first, to put us in mind of the Blessed Trinity; and secondly to remind us that God the Son died for us on the Cross.

60. In making the sign of the cross how are we reminded of the Blessed Trinity?

In making the sign of the cross we are reminded of the
Blessed Trinity by the words, 'In the name of the Father, 1
and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit'.

61. In making the sign of the cross how are we reminded that Christ died for us on the Cross?

In making the sign of the cross we are reminded that Christ died for us on the Cross by the very form of the cross which we make upon ourselves.

The Fifth Article of the Creed

62. What is the fifth article of the Creed?

The fifth article of the Creed is, 'he descended into hell; the third day he rose again from the dead'.

63. What do you mean by the words, 'he descended into hell'?

By the words 'he descended into hell' I mean that, as soon as Christ was dead, his blessed Soul went down into that part of hell called Limbo.

64. What do you mean by Limbo?

By Limbo I mean a place of rest, where the souls of the just who died before Christ were detained.

65. Why were the souls of the just detained in Limbo?

The souls of the just were detained in Limbo because they could not go up to the kingdom of heaven till Christ had opened it for them.

66. What do you mean by the words, 'the third day he rose again from the dead'?

By the words, 'the third day he rose again from the dead', I mean that, after Christ had been dead and buried part of three days, he raised his blessed Body to life again on the third day.

67. On what day did Christ rise again from the dead?

Christ rose again from the dead on Easter Sunday.

The Sixth Article of the Creed

68. What is the sixth article of the Creed?

The sixth article of the Creed is, 'he ascended into heaven; is seated at the right hand of God the Father Almighty'.

69. What do you mean by the words, 'he ascended into heaven'?

By the words, 'be ascended into heaven', I mean that our Saviour went up Body and Soul into heaven on Ascension Day, forty days after his resurrection.

70. What do you mean by the words, 'is seated at the right hand of God the Father Almighty'?

By the words, 'is seated at the right hand of God the Father Almighty', I do not mean that God the Father has hands, for he is a spirit; but I mean that Christ, as God, is equal to the Father and, as man, is in the highest place in heaven.
71. What is the seventh article of the Creed?

The seventh article of the Creed is, 'from thence he shall come to judge the living and the dead'.

72. When will Christ come again?

Christ will come again from heaven at the last day, to judge all mankind.

73. What are the things Christ will judge?

Christ will judge our thoughts, words, works, and omissions.

74. What will Christ say to the wicked?

Christ will say to the wicked: 'Go away from me, with your curse upon you, to the eternal fire prepared for the devil and his angels'. (Matt. 25:41)

75. What will Christ say to the just?

Christ will say to the just: 'Come you whom my Father has blessed, take for your heritage the kingdom prepared for you'. (Matt. 25:34)

76. Will every one be judged at death, as well as at the last day?

Every one will be judged at death, as well as at the last day: 'Since men only die once, and after that comes judgement'. (Heb. 927)

77. What is the eighth article of the Creed?

The eighth article of the Creed is, 'I believe in the Holy Spirit.

78. Who is the Holy Spirit?

The Holy Spirit is the Third Person of the Blessed Trinity.

79. From whom does the Holy Spirit proceed?

The Holy Spirit proceeds from the Father and the Son.

80. Is the Holy Spirit equal to the Father and to the Son?

The Holy Spirit is equal to the Father and to the Son, for he is the same Lord and God as they are.

81. When did the Holy Spirit come down on the Apostles?

The Holy Spirit carne down on the Apostles at Pentecost, in the form that 'seemed like tongues of fire'. (Acts 2:3)

82. Why did the Holy Spirit come down on the Apostles?

The Holy Spirit came down on the Apostles to confirm their faith, to sanctify them, and to enable them to found the Church.

83. What is the ninth article of the Creed?

The ninth article of the Creed is, 'the Holy Catholic Church; the Communion of Saints'.

84. What is the Catholic Church?

The Catholic Church is the union of all the faithful under one Head.

85. Who is Head of the Catholic Church?

The Head of the Catholic Church is Jesus Christ our Lord.

86. Has the Church a visible Head on earth?

The Church has a visible Head on earth - the Bishop of Rome, who is the Vicar of Christ.

87. Why is the Bishop of Rome the Head of the Church?

The Bishop of Rome is the Head of the Church because he is the successor of St Peter, whom Christ appointed to be the Head of the Church.

88. How do you know that Christ appointed St Peter to be the Head of the Church?

I know that Christ appointed St Peter to be the Head of the Church because Christ said to him: 'You are Peter, and on this rock I will build my Church. And the gates of the underworld can never hold out against it. I will give you the keys of the kingdom of heaven'. (Matt. 16:18.19)

89. What is the Bishop of Rome called?

The Bishop of Rome is called the Pope, which signifies Father.

90. Is the Pope the Spiritual Father of all Christians?

The Pope is the Spiritual Father of all Christians.

91. Is the Pope the Shepherd and Teacher of all Christians?

The Pope is the Shepherd and Teacher of all Christians, because Christ made St Peter the Shepherd of the whole flock when he said: 'Feed my lambs, feed my sheep'. He also prayed that his 'faith' might never fail, and commanded him to 'strengthen' his brothers. (John 21:15-17, Luke 22:32)

92. Is the Pope infallible?

The Pope is infallible.

93. What do you mean when you say that the Pope is infallible?

When I say that the Pope is infallible, I mean that the Pope cannot err when, as Shepherd and Teacher of all Christians, he defines a doctrine concerning faith or morals, to be held by the whole Church.

94. Has the Church of Christ any marks by which we may know her?

The Church of Christ has four marks by which we may know her: she is One - she is Holy - she is Catholic - she is Apostolic.

95. How is the Church One?

The Church is One because all her members agree in one Faith, have all the same Sacrifice and Sacraments, and are all united under one Head.

96. How is the Church Holy?

The Church is Holy because she teaches a holy doctrine, offers to all the means of holiness and is distinguished by the eminent holiness of so many thousands of her children.

97. What does the word Catholic mean?

The word Catholic means universal.

98. How is the Church Catholic or universal?

The Church is Catholic or universal because she subsists in all ages, teaches all nations, and is the one Ark of Salvation for all.

99. How is the Church Apostolic?

The Church is Apostolic because she holds the doctrines and traditions of the Apostles, and because, through the unbroken succession of her Pastors, she derives her Orders and her Mission from them.

100. Can the Church err in what she teaches?

The Church cannot err in what she teaches as to faith or morals, for she is our infallible guide in both.

101. How do you know that the Church cannot err in what she teaches?

I know that the Church cannot err in what she teaches because Christ promised that the gates of hell should never prevail against his Church; that the Holy Spirit should teach her all things; and that he himself would be with her always, even to the end of time. (Matt. 16:18. .lohn 14:16-26. Matt. 28:20)

102. What do you mean by the Communion of Saints?

By the Communion of Saints I mean that all the members of the Church, in heaven, on earth, and in purgatory, are in communion with each other, as being one body in Jesus Christ.

103. How are the faithful on earth in communion with each other?

The faithful on earth are in communion with each other by professing the same faith, obeying the same authority. and assisting each other with their prayers and good works.

104. How are we in communion with the Saints in heaven?

We are in communion with the Saints in heaven by honouring them as the glorified members of the Church, and also by praying to thern, and by their praying for us.

105. How are we in communion with the souls in purgatory?

We are in communion with the souls in purgatory by helping them with our prayers and good works: 'It is a holy and wholesome thought to pray for the dead, that they may be loosed from sins'. (2 Macc. 12:46)

106. What is purgatory?

Purgatory is a place where souls suffer for a time after death on account of their sins.

107. What souls go to purgatory?

Those souls go to purgatory that depart this life in venial sin; or that have not fully paid the debt of temporal punishment due to those sins of which the guilt has been forgiven.

108. What is temporal punishment?

Temporal punishment is punishment which will have an end, either in this world, or in the world to come.

109. How do you prove that there is a purgatory?

I prove that there is a purgatory from the constant teaching of the Church; and from the doctrine of Holy Scripture, which declares that God will render to every man according to his works; that nothing defiled shall enter heaven; and that some will be saved, 'as one who has gone through fire. (Matt. 16:27. Apoc. 21:27. 1 Cor. 3:15)

110. What is the tenth article of the Creed?

The tenth article of the Creed is, 'the forgiveness of sins'.

111. What do you mean by 'the forgiveness of sins'?

By the forgiveness of sins I mean that Christ has left the power of forgiving sins to the Pastors of his Church. (John 20:23)

112. By what means are sins forgiven?

Sins are forgiven principally by the Sacraments of Baptism and Penance.

113. What is sin?

Sin is an offence against God, by any thought, word, deed, or omission against the law of God.

114. How many kinds of sin are there?

There are two kinds of sin, original sin and actual sin.

115. What is original sin?

Original sin is that guilt and stain of sin which we inherit from Adam, who was the origin and head of all mankind.

116. What was the sin committed by Adam?

The sin committed by Adam was the sin of disobedience when he ate the forbidden fruit.

117. Has all mankind contracted the guilt and stain of original sin?

All mankind has contracted the guilt and stain of original sin, except the Blessed Virgin and her Divine Son, through whose foreseen merits she was conceived without the least guilt or stain of original sin.

118. What is this privilege of the Blessed Virgin called?

This privilege of the Blessed Virgin is called the Immaculate Conception.

119. What is actual sin?

Actual sin is every sin which we ourselves commit.

120. How is actual sin divided?

Actual sin is divided into mortal sin and venial sin.

121. What is mortal sin?

Mortal sin is a serious offence against God.

122. Why is it called mortal sin?

It is called mortal sin because it is so serious that it kills the soul and deserves hell.

123. How does mortal sin kill the soul?

Mortal sin kills the soul by depriving it of sanctifying grace, which is the supernatural life of the soul.

124. Is it a great evil to fall into mortal sin?

It is the greatest of all evils to fall into mortal sin.

125. Where will they go who die in mortal sin?

They who die in mortal sin will go to hell for all eternity.

126. What is venial sin?

Venial sin is an offence which does not kill the soul, yet displeases God, and often leads to mortal sin.

127. Why is it called venial sin?

It is called venial sin because it is more easily pardoned than mortal sin.

128. What is the eleventh article of the Creed?

The eleventh article of the Creed is, 'the resurrection of the body'.

129. What do you mean by 'the resurrection of the body'?

By 'the resurrection of the body' I mean that we shall rise again with the same bodies at the day of judgment'.

130. What is the twelfth article of the Creed?

The twelfth article of the Creed is, 'life everlasting'.

131. What does 'life everlasting' mean?

'Life everlasting' means that the good shall live for ever in the glory and happiness of heaven.

132. What is the glory and happiness of heaven?

The glory and happiness of heaven is to see, love, and enjoy God for ever.

133. What does the Scripture say of the happiness of heaven?

The Scripture says of the happiness of heaven: 'No eye has seen and no ear has heard, things beyond the mind of man, all that God has prepared for those who love him.' (1 Cor. 2:9)

134. Shall not the wicked also live for ever?

The wicked also shall live and be punished for ever in the fire of hell.

 

HOPE

135. Will Faith alone save us?

Faith alone will not save us without good works; we must also have Hope and Charity.

136. What is Hope?

Hope is a supernatural gift of God, by which we firmly trust that God will give us eternal life and all means necessary to obtain it, if we do what he requires of us.

137. Why must we hope in God?

We must hope in God because he is infinitely good, infinitely powerful, and faithful to his promises.

138. Can we do any good work of ourselves towards our salvation?

We can do no good work of ourselves towards our salvation; we need the help of God's grace.

What is Grace?

139.Grace is a supernatural gift of God, freely bestowed upon us for our sanctification and salvation.

140. How must we obtain God's grace?

We must obtain God's grace chiefly by prayer and the holy Sacraments.

Prayer

141. What is prayer?

Prayer is the raising up of the mind and heart to God.

142. How do we raise up our mind and heart to God?

We raise up our mind and heart to God by thinking of God; by adoring, praising, and thanking him; and by begging of him all blessings for soul and body.

143. Do those pray well who, at their prayers, think neither of God nor of what they say?

Those who, at their prayers, think neither of God nor of what they say, do not pray well; but they offend God, if their distractions are wilful.

144. Which is the best of all prayers?

The best of all prayers is the 'Our Father', or the Lord's Prayer.

145. Who made the Lord's Prayer?

Jesus Christ himself made the Lord's Prayer.

146. Say the Lord's Prayer.

Our Father, who art in heaven, hallowed be thy name;
thy kingdom come;
thy will be done on earth as it is in heaven;
give us this day our daily bread;
and forgive us our trespasses, as we forgive those who trespass against us;
and lead us not into temptation;
but deliver us from evil.
Amen.

147. In the Lord's Prayer who is called 'our Father'?

In the Lord's prayer God is called 'our Father'.

148. Why is God called 'our Father'?

God is called 'our Father' because he is the Father of all Christians, whom he has made his children by Holy Baptism.

149. Is God also the Father of all mankind?

God is also the Father of all mankind because he made them all. and loves and preserves them all.

150. Why do we say, 'our' Father, and not 'my' Father?

We say 'our' Father, and not 'my' Father, because, being all brethren, we are to pray not for ourselves only, but also for all others.

151. When we say, 'hallowed be thy name', what do we pray for?

When we say, 'hallowed be thy name', we pray that God may be known, loved, and served by all his creatures.

152. When we say, 'thy Kingdom come', what do we pray for?

When we say, 'thy kingdom come', we pray that God may come and reign in the hearts of all by his grace in this world, and bring us all hereafter to his heavenly kingdom.

153. When we say, 'thy will be done on earth as it is in heaven', what do we pray for?

When we say, 'thy will be done on earth as it is in heaven', we pray that God may enable us, by his grace, to do his will in all things, as the Blessed do in heaven.

154. When we say, 'give us this day our daily bread', what do we pray for?

When we say, 'give us this day our daily bread' we pray that God may give us daily all that is necessary for soul and body.

155. When we say 'forgive us our trespasses, as we forgive those who trespass against us', what do we pray for?

When we say, 'forgive us our trespasses, as we forgive those who trespass against us', we pray that God may forgive us our sins, as we forgive others the injuries they do to us.

156. When we say, 'lead us not into temptation', what do we pray for?

When we say, 'lead us not into temptation' we pray that God may give us grace not to yield to temptation.

157. When we say, 'deliver us from evil', what do we pray for?

When we say, 'deliver us from evil', we pray that God may free us from all evil, both of soul and body.

158. Should we ask the Angels and Saints to pray for us?

We should ask the Angels and Saints to pray for us, because they are our friends and brethren, and because their prayers have great power with God.

159. How can we show that the Angels and Saints know what passes on earth?

We can show that the Angels and Saints know what passes on earth from the words of Christ: 'There shall be joy before the Angels of God upon one sinner doing penance'. (Luke 15:10)

160. What is the chief prayer to the Blessed Virgin which the Church uses?

The chief prayer to the Blessed Virgin which the Church uses is the Hail Mary.

Hail Mary

161 Say the Hail Mary

Hail Mary, full of grace:
the Lord is with thee;
blessed art thou among women, and blessed is the fruit of thy womb, Jesus.
Holy Mary, Mother of God,
pray for us sinners, now, and at the hour of our death.
Amen.

162. Who made the first part of the Hail Mary?

The Angel Gabriel and St Elizabeth, inspired by the Holy Spirit, made the first part of the Hail Mary.

163. Who made the second part of the Hall Mary?

The Church of God, guided by the Holy Spirit, made the second part of the Hail Mary.

164. Why should we frequently say the Hail Mary?

We should frequently say the Hail Mary to put us in mind of the Incarnation of the Son of God: and to honour our Blessed Lady, the Mother of God.

165. Have we another reason for often saying the Hail Mary?

We have another reason for often saying the Hail Mary - to ask our Blessed Lady to pray for us sinners at all times, but especially at the hour of our death.

166. Why does the Catholic Church show great devotion to the Blessed Virgin?

The Catholic Church shows great devotion to the Blessed Virgin because she is the Immaculate Mother of God.

167. How is the Blessed Virgin Mother of God?

The Blessed Virgin is Mother of God because Jesus Christ, her son, who was born of her as man, is not only man, but is also truly God.

168. Is the Blessed Virgin our Mother also?

The Blessed Virgin is our Mother also because, being the brethren of Jesus, we are the children of Mary.

168a. What do we mean by the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin?

By the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin we mean that by the power of God, Mary, at the completion of her life, was taken body and soul into everlasting glory to reign as Queen of heaven and earth.

168b. Is the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin an article of Faith?

The Assumption of the Blessed Virgin is an article of Faith because it has been solemnly defined by the infallible authority of the Church.

 

CHARITY

169. What is Charity?

Charity is a supernatural gift of God by which we love God above all things, and our neighbour as ourselves for God's sake.

170. Why must we love God?

We must love God because he is infinitely good in himself and infinitely good to us.

171. How do we show that we love God?

We show that we love God by keeping his commandments: for Christ says: 'If you love me, keep my commandments'. (John 14:15: Matt. 19:16-19.. Rom. 13..9-10)

172. How many Commandments are there?

There are ten Commandments.

173. Say the ten Commandments.

1. I am Yahweh your God who brought you out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of slavery. You shall have no gods except me. You shall not make yourself a carved image or any likeness of anything in heaven, or on the earth beneath or in the waters under the earth. You shall not bow down to them or serve them.
2. You shall not take the name of the Lord your God in vain.
3. Remember the Sabbath day, to keep it holy.
4. Honour your father and your mother.
5. You shall not kill.
6. You shall not commit adultery.
7. You shall not steal.
8. You shall not bear false witness against your neighbour.
9. You shall not covet your neighbour's wife.
10. You shall not covet your neighbour's goods.

174. Who gave the ten Commandments?

God gave the ten Commandments to Moses in the Old Law, and Christ confirmed them in the New.

The  Commandment

175. What is the first Commandment?

The first Commandment is, 'I am Yahweh your God who brought you out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of slavery. You shall have no gods except me. You shall not make yourself a carved image or any likeness of anything in heaven, or on the earth beneath or in the waters under the earth. You shall not bow down to them or serve them'.

176. What are we commanded to do by the first Commandment?

By the first Commandment we are commanded to worship the one, true, and living God, by Faith, Hope, Charity, and Religion.

177. What are the sins against Faith?

The sins mainst Faith are all false religions, wilful doubt, disbelief, or denial of any article of Faith, and also culpable ignorance of the doctrines of the Church.

178. How do we expose ourselves to the danger of losing our Faith?

We expose ourselves to the danger of losing our Faith by neglecting our spiritual duties, reading bad books, going to non-Catholic schools.

179. What are the sins against Hope?

The sins against Hope are despair and presumption.

180. What are the chief sins against Religion?

The chief sins against Religion are the worship of false gods or idols, and the giving to any creature whatsoever the honour which belongs to God alone.

181. Does the first Commandment forbid the making of images?

The first Commandment does not forbid the making of images, but the making of idols; that is, it forbids us to make images to be adored and honoured as gods.

182. Does the first Commandment forbid dealing with the devil and superstitious practices?

The first Commandment forbi& all dealing with the devil and superstitious practices, such as consulting spiritualists and fortune-tellers, and trusting to charms, omens, dreams, and such-like fooleries.

183. Are all sins of sacrilege and simony also forbidden by the first Commandment?

All sins of sacrilege and simony are also forbidden by the first Commandment.

184. Is it forbidden to give divine honour or worship to the Angels and Saints?

It is forbidden to give divine honour or worship to the Angels and Saints, for this belongs to God alone.

185. What kind of honour or worship should we pay to the Angels and Saints?

We should pay to the Angels and Saints an inferior honour or worship, for this is due to them as the servants and special friends of God.

186. What honour should we give to relies, crucifixes, and holy pictures?

We should give relics, crucifixes, and holy pictures a relative honour, as they relate to Christ and his Saints, and are memorials of them.

187. Do we pray to relics or images?

We do not pray to relies or images, for they can neither see, nor hear, nor help us.

The Second Commandment

188. What is the second Commandment?

The second Commandment is, 'You shall not take the name of the Lord Your God in vain'.

189. What are we commanded by the second Commandment?

By the second Commandment we are commanded to speak with reverence of God and all holy persons and things, and to keep our lawful oaths and vows.

190. What does the second Commandment forbid?

The second Commandment forbids all false, rash, unjust, and unnecessary oaths; as also blaspheming, cursing and profane words.

191. Is it ever lawful to swear or to take an oath?

It is lawful to swear, or to take an oath, only when God's honour, or our own, or our neighbour's good requires it.

The Third Commandment

192. What is the third Commandment?

The third Commandment is 'Remember the Sabbath day, to keep it holy.'

193. What are we commanded by the third Commandment?

By the third Commandment we are commanded to keep the Sunday holy.

194. How are we to keep the Sunday holy?

We are to keep the Sunday holy by hearing Mass and resting from servile works.

195. Why are we commanded to rest from servile works?

We are commanded to rest from servile works that we may have time and opportunity for prayer, going to the Sacraments, hearing instructions, and reading good books.

The Fourth Commandment

196. What is the fourth Commandment?

The fourth Commandment is, 'Honour your father and your mother.'

197. What are we commanded by the fourth Commandment?

By the fourth Commandment we are commanded to love, reverence, and obey our parents in all that is not sin.

198. Are we commanded to obey our parents only?

We are commanded to obey, not only our parents, but also our bishops and pastors, the civil authorities, and our lawful superiors.

199. Are we bound to assist our parents in their wants?

We are bound to assist our parents in their wants, both spiritual and temporal.

200. Are we bound in justice to contribute to the support of our pastors?

We are bound in justice to contribute to the support of our pastors; for St Paul says: 'The Lord directed that those who preach the Gospel should get their living from the Gospel'. (1 Cor. 9:14)

201. What is the duty of parents towards their children?

The duty of parents towards their children is to provide for them, to instruct and correct them, and to give them a good Catholic education.

202. What is the duty of masters, mistresses, and other superiors?

The duty of masters, mistresses, and other superiors is to take proper care of those under their charge, and to enable them to practise their religious duties.

203. What does the fourth Commandment forbid?

The fourth Commandment forbids all contempt, stubbornness, and disobedience to our parents and lawful superiors.

204. Is it sinful to belong to a Secret Society?

It is sinful to belong to any Secret Society that plots against the Church or State, or to any Society that by reason of its secrecy is condemned by the Church; for St Paul says: 'You must all obey the governing authorities. Since all government comes from God, the civil authorities were appointed by God, and so anyone who resists authority is rebelling against God's decision, and such an act is bound to be punished.' (Rom. 13:1.2)

The Fifth Commandment

205. What is the fifth Commandment?

The fifth Commandment is, 'You shall not kill'.

206. What does the fifth Commandment forbid?

The fifth Commandment forbids all wilful murder, fighting, quarrelling, and injurious words; and also scandal and bad example.

207. Does the fifth Commandment forbid anger?

The fifth Commandment forbids anger, and still more, hatred and revenge.

208. Why are scandal and bad example forbidden by the fifth Commandment?

Scandal and bad example are forbidden by the fifth Commandment, because they lead to the injury and spiritual death of our neighbour's soul.

The Sixth Commandment

209. What is the sixth Commandment?

The sixth Commandment is, 'You shall not commit adultery'.

210. What does the sixth Commandment forbid?

The sixth Commandment forbids all sins of impurity with another's wife or husband.

211. Does the sixth Commandment forbid whatever is contrary to holy purity?

The sixth Commandment forbids whatever is contrary to holy purity in looks, words, or actions.

212. Are immodest plays and dances forbidden by the sixth Commandment?

Immodest plays and dances are forbidden by the sixth Commandment, and it is sinful to look at them.

213. Does the sixth Commandment forbid immodest songs, books, and pictures?

The six Commandment forbids immodest songs, books, and pictures, because they are most dangerous to the soul, and lead to mortal sin.

The Seventh Commandment

214. What is the seventh Commandment?

The seventh Commandment is, 'You shall not steal'.

215. What does the seventh Commandment forbid?

The seventh Commandment forbids all unjust taking away, or keeping what belongs to another.

216. Is all manner of cheating in buying and selling forbidden by the seventh Commandment?

All manner of cheating in buying and selling is forbidden by the seventh Commandment, and also every other way of wronging our neighbour.

217. Are we bound to restore ill-gotten goods?

We are bound to restore ill-gotten goods if we are able, or else the sin will not be forgiven; we must also pay our debts.

218. Is it dishonest for workers to waste their employer's time or property?

It is dishonest for workers to waste their employer's time or property, because it is wasting what is not their own.

The Eighth Commandment

219. What is the eighth Commandment?

The eighth Commandment is, 'You shall not bear false witness against your neighbour'.

220. What does the eighth Commandment forbid?

The eighth Commandment forbids all false testimony, rash judgment, and lies.

221. Are calumny and detraction forbidden by the eighth Commandment?

Calumny and detraction are forbidden by the eighth Commandment, and also tale-bearing, and any words which injure our neighbour's character.

222. If you have injured your neighbour by speaking ill of him, what are you bound to do?

If I have injured my neighbour by speaking ill of him, I am bound to make him satisfaction by restoring his good name as far as I can.

The Ninth Commandment

223. What is the ninth Commandment?

The ninth Commandment is, 'You shall not covet your neighbour's wife'.

224. What does the ninth Commandment forbid?

The ninth Commandment forbids all wilful consent to impure thoughts and desires, and all wilful pleasure in the irregular motions of the flesh.

225. What sins commonly lead to the breaking of the sixth and ninth Commandments?

The sins that commonly lead to the breaking of the sixth and ninth Commandments are gluttony, drunkenness, and intemperance, and also idleness, bad company, and the neglect of prayer.

The Tenth Commandment

226. What is the tenth Commandment?

The tenth Commandment is, 'You shall not covet your neighbour's goods'.

227. What does the tenth Commandment forbid?

The tenth Commandment forbids all envious and covetous thoughts and unjust desires of our neighbour's goods and profits.

The Commandments of the Church

 

228. Are we bound to obey the Church?

We are bound to obey the Church, because Christ has said to the pastors of the Church: 'Anyone who listens to you, listens to me: anyone who rejects you rejects me'. (Luke 10:16)

229. What are the chief Commandments of the Church?

The chief Commandments of the Church are:
1. To keep the Sundays and Holy days of Obligation holy, by hearing Mass and resting from servile works.
2. To observe the appointed days of penance.
3. To go to confession at least once a year.
4. To receive the Blessed Sacrament at least once a year, and that at Easter or thereabouts.
5. To contribute to the support of our pastors.
6. Not to marry within certain degrees of kindred.

230. What is the first Commandment of the Church?

The first Commandment of the Church is, 'To keep the Sundays and Holy days of Obligation holy, by. hearing Mass and resting from servile works'.

231. Which are the Holy days of Obligation observed in England and Wales?

The Holy days of Obligation observed in England and Wales are: Christmas Day, the Epiphany, the Ascension, Corpus Christi, SS Peter and Paul, the Assumption of our Lady, and All Saints.

232. Are Catholics bound to attend Mass on Sundays and Holy days of Obligation?

Catholics are under a serious obligation to attend Mass on Sundays and Holy days of Obligation unless prevented by other serious duties or by ill-health.

233. Are parents, masters, and mistresses bound to provide that those under their charge shall hear Mass on Sundays and Holy days of Obligation?

Parents, masters and mistresses are bound to provide that those under their charge shall hear Mass on Sundays and Holy days of Obligation.

234. What is the second Commandment of the Church?

The second Commandment of the Church is 'To observe the appointed days of penance'.

235. Which are the appointed days of penance?

The appointed days of penance are each Friday of the year and the Season of Lent.

236. What are days of Penance?

Days of Penance are days on which we are in a special manner to devote ourselves to prayer, works of charity and self-denial.

237. What are the Friday forms of Penance?

On Fridays other than Solemnities we are to abstain from meat or some other food, drink or amusement or undertake one of the other works of penance stipulated by the Bishops' Conference. (Abstinence is binding from the age of 14).

238. On Ash Wednesday and Good Friday what forms of penance are we to observe?

On Ash Wednesday and Good Friday we are to fast and observe the Friday forms of penance.

239. What is fasting?

Fasting is eating considerably less food. The Church commands us to fast and abstain that so we may mortify the flesh and satisfy God for our sins. (Fasting is binding between the age of 18 and 59).

240. How often should we go to Confession?

If we have been guilty of serious sin we should go to Confession as soon as possible, but never less than once a year.

241. How soon are children bound to go to confession?

Children are bound to go to confession as soon as they have come to the use of reason, and are capable of serious sin.

242. When are children generally supposed to come to the use of reason?

Children are generally supposed to come to the use of reason about the age of seven years.

243. What is the fourth Commandment of the Church?

The fourth Commandment of the Church is, 'To receive the Blessed Sacrament at least once a year, and that at Easter or thereabouts.

244. How soon are Christians bound to receive the Blessed Sacrament?

Christians are bound to receive the Blessed Sacrament as soon as they are capable of distinguishing the Body of Christ from ordinary bread, and are judged to be sufficiently instructed.

245. What is the fifth Commandment of the Church?

The fifth Commandment of the Church is, 'To contribute to the support of our pastors'.

246. Is it a duty to contribute to the support of religion?

It is a duty to contribute to the support of religion according to our means, so that God may be duly honoured and worshipped, and the kingdom of his Church extended.

247. What is the sixth Commandment of the Church?

The sixth Commandment of the Church is, 'Not to marry within certain degrees of kindred'.

248. Are there any times of the year in which it is forbidden to marry?

There are no times of the year in which it is forbidden to marry, but couples who marry during Advent or Lent should take into consideration the special liturgical nature of these times.

THE SACRAMENTS

Introduction

249. What is a Sacrament?

A Sacrament is an outward sign of inward grace, ordained by Jesus Christ, by which grace is given to our souls.

250. Do the Sacraments always give grace?

The Sacraments always give grace to those who receive them worthily.

251. Whence have the Sacraments the power of giving grace?

The Sacraments have the power of giving grace from the merits of Christ's Precious Blood which they apply to our souls.

252. Ought we to have a great desire to receive the Sacraments?

We ought to have a great desire to receive the Sacraments, because they are the chief means of our salvation.

253. Is a character given to the soul by any of the Sacraments?

A character is given to the soul by the Sacraments of Baptism, Confirmation, and Holy Order.

254. What is a character?

A character is a mark or seal on the soul which cannot he effaced, and therefore the Sacrament conferring it may not he repeated.

255. How many Sacraments are there?

There are seven Sacraments: Baptism, Confirmation, Holy Eucharist, Penance, the Anointing of the Sick, Holy Order, and Matrimony.

 

Baptism

256. What is Baptism?

Baptism is a Sacrament which cleanses us from original sin, makes us Christians, children of God, and members of the Church.

257. Does Baptism also forgive actual sins?

Baptism also forgives actual sins, with all punishment due to them. when it is received in proper dispositions by those who have been guilty of actual sin.

258. Who is the ordinary minister of Baptism?

The ordinary minister of Baptism is a priest; but any one may baptise in case of necessity, when a priest cannot be had.

259. How is Baptism given?

Baptism is given by pouring water on the head of the child, saying at the same time these words: 'I baptise you in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit'.

260. What do we promise in Baptism?

We promise in Baptism to renounce the devil and all his works and pomps.

261. Is Baptism necessary for salvation?

Baptism is necessary for salvation because Christ has said: 'Unless a man is born again through water and the Spirit, he cannot enter the kingdom of God'. (John 3:5)

Confirmation

262. What is Confirmation?

Confirmation is a Sacrament by which we receive the Holy Spirit, in order to make us strong and perfect Christians and soldiers of Jesus Christ.

263. Who is the ordinary minister of Confirmation?

The ordinary minister of Confirmation is a Bishop.

264. How does the Bishop administer the Sacrament of Confirmation?

The Bishop administers the Sacrament of Confirmation by praying that the Holy Spirit may come down upon those who are to be confirmed; and by laying his hand on them, and making the sign of the cross with chrism on their foreheads, at the same time pronouncing certain words.

265. What are the words used in Confirmation?

The words used in Confirmation are these: 'N... be sealed with the Gift of the Holy Spirit'.

 

The Holy Eucharist

266. What is the Sacrament of the Holy Eucharist?
The Sacrament of the Holy Eucharist is the true Body and Blood of Jesus Christ, together with his Soul and Divinity, under the appearances of bread and wine.

267. How are the bread and wine changed into the Body and Blood of Christ?

The bread and wine are changed into the Body and Blood of Christ by the power of God, to whom nothing is impossible or difficult.

268. When are the bread and wine changed into the Body and Blood of Christ?

The bread and wine are changed into the Body and Blood of Christ when the words of consecration, ordained by Jesus Christ, are pronounced by the priest in Holy Mass.

269. Why has Christ given himself to us in the Holy Eucharist?

Christ has given himself to be the life and the food of our souls. 'Whoever eats me will draw life from me': 'Anyone who eats this bread will live for ever'. (John